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董子其人其学

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极速快3官网  【ZHONGHUAWENHUAGONGKAIKE】

  JINTIANWOJIANGDONGZHONGSHU,ZHUYAOJIANGSANGEWENTI。

  生平考证

  JISUKUAI3GUANWANGKANKANDONGZHONGSHUSHINALIREN。《SHIJI?RULINLIECHUAN》LIJIANGDONGZHONGSHUSHIGUANGCHUANREN。GUANGCHUANZAILISHISHANGYOUGEYANBIANGUOCHENG。ZUIZAODESHIHOUGUANGCHUANSHIGEGUO,YOUJISUKUAI3GUANWANGXIANZAIBANGESHENGNEIMEDA,HOULAIGAICHENGGUANGCHUANJUN,XIANGDIJISHIYIYANG,ZAIHOULAISHIGUANGCHUANXIAN,XIANZAISHIGUANGCHUANZHEN。GUANGCHUANZHENZAIHEBEIJINGXIAN,JINGXIANDERENRENWEIDONGZHONGSHUSHIGUANGCHUANREN。

  JINAIZHEJINGXIANDEZAOQIANGXIANZERENWEIDONGZHONGSHUSHIZAOQIANGREN,ZAOQIANGYOUZUOLIANGMIDUOGAODEDONGZHONGSHUSHIXIANG。ZAOQIANGYOUGEDIFANGJIAOHOUJIUXIANCUN,YUANLAIJIUXIANDEXIANZHIZAINEILI,HOULAIBANZOULE,BIANCHENGHOUJIUXIANCUN。MINGCHAOSHIDONGZHONGSHUSHIXIANGSHIZAITAIXINGSHANKEDE,KEHAOYIHOUYONGMACHELAZHEWANGDONGZOU,ZOUDAOHOUJIUXIANCUNMAZENMEYEBUZOULE,YOUYIGERENRENWEIDONGYEYEKENENGJIUZAIZHEIGEDIFANG,YUSHI,DONGZHONGSHUDESHIXIANGJIUBEILIZAIZHEILI。RANHOUZAOQIANGXIANDERENSHUO,JISUKUAI3GUANWANGZHEIGEDIFANGSHIDONGZHONGSHUDELAOJIA。ZHEILIANGGEXIANAIDEHENJIN,DANSHISHUOBUQINGCHUDAODISHINAYIGE,YINWEIHANDAIDEJUNHENDA,QIMAYOUSHIJIGEXIANZHEIMEDA,AIDENEIMEJIN,SHUOBUQINGCHUDAODISHINAYIBIANDE,DANSHIZHEILIANGGEXIANXIANZAIDOUSHUYUHENGSHUISHI。XIHANSHIDAI,ZAOQIANGHEJINGXIANDOUSHUYUGUANGCHUANJUN。JINGXIANZAIGUOQUYECENGSHUYUDEZHOU。DEZHOU《DIFANGZHI》JIZAIYOUDONGZIDUSHUTAI,YUSHIDEZHOUYEYIDONGZIDUSHUTAIMINGYICHUANGJIANLEYIGEJINGQU,SHULIGAODADEDONGZISHIXIANG。ZONGZHI,DONGZIGUXIANGHENNANQUEDING,DANSHUODONGZHONGSHUSHIHENGSHUISHIRENHUOZHEHEBEIRENDOUKEYI,DOUBUSUANCUO。

  《SHIJI》JIZAI“DONGZISANNIANBUKUIYUANZHONGCAI”,YOURENRENWEITARENZHENDUSHU,SUOYIMEIYOUSHIJIANKANCAIYUAN。RENZHENDUSHUCHENGLEXIGUAN,BUHUIZHIYOUSANNIANBUKUIYUAN。SANNIANBUKUIYUAN,YINGGAIYOUTESHUQINGKUANG,XIANGXIANDAIXUESHENGZHUNBEIGAOKAOYIYANG。DONGZHONGSHUYISHENGZUITESHUDEQINGKUANGJIUSHIZHUNBEICANJIADUICE,YAOZHUNBEIHUANGDITICHUDEWENTI,ZHEISHISHITUZHONGGUANJIANDEHUANJIE。YINCI,JISUKUAI3GUANWANGTUICETACANJIADUICEQIANSANNIANKAISHIZUOZHUNBEI,MEISHIJIANQUKANCAIYUANZI。

  ZHEISANNIANSHISHENMESHIHOU?DONGZHONGSHUNEISHIDUODA?SHIXUEJIAXIELISHI,XIGUANANSHIJIANQIANHOUSHUNXULAIXIE。DONGZIXIANDANG《CHUNQIU》BOSHI,JINXINGJIAOXUE,SANNIANBUKUIYUAN,RANHOUDUICE,BEIRENWEIJIANGDOUXIANG。DAN《SHIJI》MEIYOUJIZAIDUICEDESHI,BANGU《HANSHU》JIANGDONGZHONGSHUDUICELIEZAIYUANGUANGYUANNIAN。XIHANHUANTANSHUODONGZHONGSHU“NIANZHILIUSHIYU,BUKUIYUANZHONGCAI”,ZHEIYANGTUISUANDONGZHONGSHUDUICESHIYUELIUSHISIWUSUI。DONGZHONGSHUSHENGYUGAOZUSHIDAI,YUEGONGYUANQIAN198NIAN。TAYINGGAISHIHUODAOQISHIQISUI,CAIDEYIZHISHI。

  董仲舒的思想精华

极速快3官网  DIYIDIAN,SHIDONGZHONGSHUDEDAYITONGSIXIANG。DAYITONGSHI《CHUNQIUGONGYANGCHUAN》LISHOUXIANTIDAODE,HOURENDUIZHEIGECIYOUDUOZHONGJIESHI: YI、DASHIZANYANGCI,XINGRONG“YITONG”DEWEIDA。ER、DASHIXINGRONGCI,ZHIDAJUFANGMIANYAOTONGYI,SHENGHUOXIJIESHANGJIUBUBIQIANGDIAOTONGYI。ZHEIXIESHUOFA,DOUYOUDAOLI。DONGZIBENRENJIANGDESHISHENMEYISINI?ZHEIKEYICONGDONGZISANDUICEDEZUIHOUSHUOFALAITIHUI。TARENWEI,《CHUNQIU》DAYITONGSHISHIJIEPUBIANYUANZE。XIANZAIJIAOSHIYOUZIJIDEBUXIANGTONGDEDAOLI,GERENYEYOUBUTONGDELILUN,BAIJIABUTONGFANGFA,MEIFATONGYIQILAI,FAZECHANGBIANHUA,XIAJIBUZHIDAOYAOJIANSHOUSHENME。DONGZITICHUYAOJIANSHOUDESHI“LIUYIZHIKE,KONGZIZHISHU”,JIUSHIYIKONGZIWEIDAIBIAODERUXUE。DONGZIBATATAIDAODUZUNDEDIWEI,QITAXUEPAIDESIXIANGFANGDI,BUYUKONGZIBINGLIE。ZHEIYANGXIAJIZHIDAOYAOJIANSHOUSHENME,PINGMINYEZHIDAOFUCONGSHEI。HOURENZONGJIECHUZHEIYISIXIANGYUANZEJIUJIAO“BACHUBAIJIA,DUZUNRUSHU”。

  “BACHUBAIJIA,DUZUNRUSHU”JIUSHISHUO,BUSHIKONGZIDENEIYITAODONGXI,JIUBURANGTAXUANYANGCHULAI,ZHEIYANGJIUTUCHULEKONGZIRUXUEDELINGDAODIWEI。HOULAIBIERENBATAGUINAWEI“DUZUNRUSHU”,ZHEISHIDONGZHONGSHUDESIXIANG,DANJUEBUSHIDONGZHONGSHUSHUODEYUANHUA,SHIHOURENSHUODE。

极速快3官网  ZHEIYANGJIUBAKONGZIDESIXIANGFANGZAILEZUIGAODEDIWEI,BIERENDOUTINGTADE。DANBUSHIZHIXUTACUNZAIBUXUBIERENCUNZAI。SIMAQIANDEFUQINSIMATAN,JIANG《LUNLIUJIAYAOZHI》,LIMIANDIWEIZUIGAODESHIDAOJIA,RUJIABUSHIZUIGAODE。

  DAOLESIMAQIANYIHOU,DUZUNRUSHULE,LIUJIABIANCHENGJIUJIA,ZENGJIALESANJIA,SUIRANKONGZIDEDIWEITIGAOLE,DANSHIMEIYOUBABIERENXIAOMIELE,HAIBAOCUNYOUJIUJIA。“BACHUBAIJIA”BINGMEIYOUQINGCHUGEJIA。

  QIANGDIAODAYITONG,DONGZHONGSHUHENYOULISHIJINGYAN。ZHOUCHAODESHIHOUZHOUTIANZIQUANWEIHENGAO,ZHUHOUDOUTINGTADE,FENFENGJIANGUO。HOULAIZHOUTIANZIDEQUANWEIZHUJIANXIAJIANG,ZHUHOUZHUJIANFAZHANQILAI,JIUDAQILAILE,BAXIAOGUOMIELE,KUODAZIJI。ZAIXIANYOUYIBAIDUOGEGUOJIA,HOULAIJIUSHENGXIAQIGE,QIGEHAIZAIDA。

  QINSHIHUANGTONGYIYIHOU,XIAOMIELIUGUO,QUXIAOLEFENGJIANZHI,GAICHENGJUNXIANZHI。JUNXIANZHISHIJISHANGJIAOZHONGYANGJIQUANZHIDU。JUNDEXINGZHENGZHANGGUANSHITAISHOU,TAISHOUGUANDENEIGEJUNSHIDAIBIAOHUANGDIQUGUANDE,JUNDUIBUSHITADE,CAIZHENGSHOURUYEBUSHITADE,TAZIJIDEZISUNYEMEIYOUJICHENGQUAN。FENGJIANDESHIHOU,ZHUHOUDEZISUNYOUJICHENGQUAN,QIGUO、LUGUODOUJICHENGLESANSHIJIDAI。GAICHENGJUNXIANZHIYIHOU,ZHEIXIETAISHOUJINGCHANGBEIDIAODONG,ZISUNMEIYOUJICHENGQUAN,WANQUANBUYIYANGLE。ZHEIZHONGZHONGYANGJIQUANZHUANZHIZHIDU,YIQIEDOUYOUHUANGDIYIGERENDULICAIJUE。

极速快3官网  LIANGQIANNIANYIQIANGENXIANZAIBUYIYANG,DANGSHIZHONGGUODEZHUANZHIZHIDUWUYISHIBITONGSHIQIDEXIFANGGENGXIANJINDEZHIDU。TONGSHIDAIDEZHENGGEOUZHOUDOUHAICHUZAINULISHEHUI,YOUDEHAIZAIYUANSHISHEHUI。

极速快3官网  DIERDIAN,DONGZHONGSHUDEYIGEHENZHONGYAODESIXIANGJIUSHITAZAI《DUICE》LITIDAODE: DEJIAOWEIZHU,XINGFAWEIFU。QINSHIHUANGSHIDAISHI“YIFAZHIGUO”,NEISHIHOUFANZUIDERENHENDUO,TUKOUTANYEZHUAQILAI,LAJIRENGDEBUSHIDIFANGYEZHUAQILAI,MANJIEYOUYIBANDOUSHIHANMIN。WANGCHONGJUGUOYIGELIZI,MAMEIXUNLIANJIURANGTALACHE,LADEBUDUIJIUSHALE,ZAILALAIYIPIMAZHONGXINLA,JIEGUOSHALEYIDADUIMA,DIYEGENGBULELE,CHEYELABUDONGLE,ZHEIDOUSHICUOWUDE。QINSHIHUANGDANCHUNDI“YIFAZHIGUO”SHIPIANMIANDE。DONGZHONGSHUZHEIYIDIAN,YINGGAISHUO,DUIZHONGHUAMINZUDEFAZHANQILEHENDAZUOYONG。TICHANGWENHUAJIAOYU,TICHANGDAODE,ZHEIYANGCAINENGZHILIHAOYIGEGUOJIA。TONGZHIZHEZHIGUOLIZHENG,BUNENGFANGRENFALVQUCHENGFA,SHOUCHENGFASHIZHONGYINGGAISHISHAOSHUREN。

极速快3官网  DISANDIAN,DONGZHONGSHUDE“DIAOJUN”SIXIANGYEHENSHENKE。TASHUO,YOUDERENQIANDUOLEJIUJIAOAO,JIUWEIBAO,JIUQIFULAOBAIXING,DAOZHISHEHUIBUANDING。HAIYOUYIXIERENYINWEIBEIYAPO,SHENGHUOBUXIAQU,SHANGBUNENGYANGFUMU,XIABUNENGYANGXIAOHAI,RIZIMEIBANFAGUOXIAQU,SUOYIQILAIZAOFAN,LUOCAOWEIKOU。TAIFUHETAIQIONG,DUISHEHUIANDINGDOUMEIYOUHAOCHU,YINGGAIJIAYIBIMIAN。DONGHANDESHIHOUYUDAOGUOPINFULIANGJIFENHUADEQINGKUANG,HUANGDIJIUSHIXINGDONGZHONGSHUDIAOJUNDEBANFA,NAERFENGSHOULEJIUBALIANGSHIYUNDAOSHOUZAIDEDIFANG。ZHEIYANG,SHEHUIJIUHENANDING,DADAJIANSHAOLEQIANGJIETOUDAODEFASHENG。

  DISIDIAN,DONGZHONGSHUTICHU,DANGGUANDEBUNENGYULAOBAIXINGZHENGLI,BUNENGYUMINZHENGYE。DONGZHONGSHUJULEGELIZI: LUGUOGUOXIANGGONGYIXIU,YOUYITIANCHIFANDESHIHOUKANDAOCAI,SHUOZHEIGECAIDUOSHAOQIANMAIDE,JIALIRENSHUOZHEIGECAIBUSHIMAIDE,SHIZIJIHOUHUAYUANZHONGDE。GONGYIXIUQIHUAILE,DAOHOUHUAYUANBACAIBALE、RENGLE。ANZHAOGONGYIXIUDEYISI,CAI,JISUKUAI3GUANWANGBUNENGZIJIZHONGZHECHI,JISUKUAI3GUANWANGYAOQUMAI。YAOSHIJISUKUAI3GUANWANGZIJIZHONGCAI,XIAMIANDEDAXIAOGUANYUANDOUGENZHEXUE,DOUZHONGCAI,CAINONGZHONGDECAIJIUMEIRENMAILE,JIUBATAMENDEYEWUZHENGGUOLAILE。ZHENGYE,SHIJISHANGYESHIZHENGLI,LAOBAIXINGMEIFASHENGHUO。

  DIWUDIAN,DONGZHONGSHUZAI《DUICE》LIHAITICHULEYIGEZENMEYANGTIGAOGUOJUNQUANWEIDEWENTI。HUANGDIQUANLIDALE,XIAMIANGUANYUANDEQUANLIXIAOLE,ZHEICAIYOULIYUZHENGZHIWENDINGHEGUOJIARENTONG。ZHEIYESHIDONGZHONGSHUKAOCHALISHI、KAOCHAXIANSHIZHIHOUDEJIELUN。HANJINGDIDESHIHOU,CHUXIAN“WUCHUQIGUOZHILUAN”,ZHEISHIDONGZHONGSHUZAISHIQINSHENJINGLIDE。QIGEGUOJIAQIANGQILAILE,YEBUTINGHUANGDIDE,HOULAIZHOUYAFUDAIBINGZHENYAXIAQU。DONGZHONGSHUYECONGZHEIGESHIJIANZHONGTIHUIDAO,YAOSHITIANXIAANDING,YAOTIGAOTIANZIDEQUANWEI,JIUYAOBAZHUHOUDESHILIXUERUOXIAQU。HOULAIYANBIANCHENG“XUEFAN”,ZHEIDUIGONGGUHUANGDIZHONGYANGJIQUANSHIHENZHONGYAODEJUCUO。

  DILIUDIAN,DONGZHONGSHUSHUOLELIANGJUHUA: “QUMINERSHENJUN,QUJUNERSHENTIAN。”“QUMINERSHENJUN”,YITINGJIUSHIYAZHELAOBAIXINGTIGAOHUANGDIDEDIWEI。DANWOSHUO,ZHEIGE“MIN”ZHUYAOSHIZHIZHUHOUWANG,YINWEIPINGMINZIJIMEIJUNDUI,ZENMEFANTIAN?WANGWANGDOUSHINEIXIEZHUHOUWANG,BEIGUIDAOMINLI,ZHEIYILEIRENSHIYAOYAXIAQUDE。LAOBAIXING,BUYONGYA,TAMENZIRANDOUZAIZUIDICENG。DANZHUHOUWANGQUEBUXING,“WUCHUQIGUOZHILUAN”ZHIQIAN,HENDUORENGENHUANGDITICHULAIYAOXUEFAN,TASHEBUDE,BURENXIN,ZUIHOUJIULUANLE。SUOYI,“QUMINERSHENJUN”LIDE“MIN”,BUSHIPUTONGLAOBAIXING,ERSHIZHUHOUWANG。

极速快3官网  “QUJUNERSHENTIAN”,SHIYAOQIUHUANGDIYEBUNENGWEISUOYUWEI。QINERSHI,MEIYOUTIANYAZHETA,TAXIANGZENMEGANJIUZENMEGAN,YITIANXIARENSIHOUTAYIGEREN,ZHEIJIUBUNENGANDING,SUOYIYAO“QUJUNERSHENTIAN”,TAIGAOTIANDEDIWEI。DONGZHONGSHUNATIANZUOWEIHUANGDIDEJINGUZHOU,LAIZHIYUETADEQUANLI,FANGZHIQILANYONG。

  古今评议

极速快3官网  ZUIZAOXIE《DONGZHONGSHUCHUAN》DESHISIMAQIAN,SIMAQIANSHUOCONGLIUBANGDAOHANWUDIZHEIWUSHIZHONGJIAN,ZUIJINGTONG《CHUNQIU》JINGDIANDEZHIYOUDONGZHONGSHUYIGE。ZHEISHIHENGAODEPINGJIA,DANQITADEJIUMEITI。DONGZHONGSHUZHUMINGDE《DUICE》ZAI《SHIJI》LIMEITIDAO,WORENWEI,BUSHIYINWEISIMAQIANBUTI,SHIYINWEITAMEIKANDAO。HANWUDISHIDAI,NEIXIE《DUICE》SHIGONGHANWUDI“QINLAN”DE,WOYIGERENQINZIKAN,BURANGBIERENKAN,DOUSHIBAOMIDE,SIMAQIANJIUKANBUDAOLE,SUOYI,SIMAQIANJIUMEIYOUTIDAODUICEZHEIJIANSHI。

极速快3官网  YOUYIGEXUEZHESHUO,SIMAQIANMEITIDAOZHEIGE《DUICE》,BANGU《HANSHU》LIYOU《DUICE》QUANWEN,SHUOMINGZHEIGE《DUICE》SHIBANGUHUBIANCHULAIDE。ZHEIGESHUOFAMEIYOUGENJU,YINWEIBANGUXIELISHIHENYANJIN。SHENZHI,JIUYINWEITAHENYANJIN,BEIZHUAQILAI,CHADIANBEISHALE,HOULAITAJIUZAIYEBUGANSHUOSHENMELE。WORENWEI,BANGUXIEDEDONGXIMEIYOURENHEHUBIANDE,HAISHIKEKAODEWENBEN。BANGUXIE《HANSHU》DESHIHOUJIUFAXIANDONGZHONGSHUDESIXIANGYINGXIANGHENDA,XUESHENGYEHENDUO,HENDUOXUESHENGDOUDANGLEDAGUAN,HAOJISHIGE,JIYUDEPINGJIAJIUTEBIEGAO,BINGQIEBADONGZHONGSHU《DUICE》DEQUANWENDOUSHOUJINQULE。BANGUCHENGDONGZHONGSHUWEI“QUNRUSHOU”,SUOYOURUSHENGZHONGJIANTASHIDIYIWEIDE,“WEIRUZHEZONG”,BEIHOULAIDERUJIACHONGBAIDEBUDELE。ZHEILIANGJUHUABIAOMINGDONGZHONGSHUSHIHANDAIZUIJIECHUDERUXUELINGXIU。

  HOULAIWANGCHONGDEPINGJIAZEGENGGAOLE,GAODAOSHENMECHENGDUNI?DONGZHONGSHUKEYIGENKONGZIBINGLIE,“WENWANGZHIWENZAIKONGZI,KONGZIZHIWENZAIZHONGSHU”,ZHOUWENWANG、KONGZI、DONGZHONGSHU,SANGEJUBOYIMAIXIANGCHENG,DOUSHISHENGREN。MENGZIMEIPAISHANG,XUNZIYEMEIPAISHANG,YINWEIMENGZI、XUNZIZAIHANDAIYIJINGHENCHUMINGLE,DANANWANGCHONGKANLAI,HAIBURUDONGZHONGSHU。

  YOUDERENSHUODONGZHONGSHUSHIJIANGTIANRENGANYINGDE,WANGCHONGSHIFANDUITIANRENGANYINGDE,TAMENLIANGGESHIZHENFENGXIANGDUIDE。DANSHIWOZIXIKANLE《LUNHENG》,YOU62CITIDAODONGZHONGSHU,ZHIYOULIANGCIDUIDONGZHONGSHUBIAOSHIHUAIYI,QITA60CIDOUSHIBIAOYANGDE,ERQIEBIAOYANGDEHENGAO,ZHEIJIUSHUOMINGWANGCHONGZHEIGERENSHISHIQIUSHI。

  XIANZAIYOUDERENBADONGZHONGSHUBIANDEHENDI,WANGWANGDOUNAXIFANGDEMINZHU、PINGDENG、ZIYOUGUANDIANTAOJIEGUDAIDENEIRONG,YUSHIPIPINGDESHENGYINJIUHENDUO。TAJIANGTIANRENGANYINGSHI“ZONGJIAOSHENMIZHUYI”“WEIXINZHUYI”,TADE“TIANBUBIANDAOYIBUBIAN”SHIXINGERSHANGXUE,TAZHICHIZHONGYANGJIQUANDEZHUANZHIZHIDUSHIFENGJIANZHUYIDESIXIANG。DANWORENWEI,QINCHAOYIHOUJIUBUSHIFENGJIANSHEHUILE,FENGJIANSHEHUIJIUSHIZHOUCHAONEIYIDUANSHIJIAN。HAIYOUERSHISHIJILIUQISHINIANDAI,BADONGZHONGSHUZUOWEIFANMIANRENWUPILEHENZHANGSHIJIAN,DANSHIZUIHOUMEIYOUYITIAONENGCHENGLIDE。HOURENPIPINGDONGZHONGSHUDE,DUOSHUSHUYUWUJIE,ERXIANZAIJISUKUAI3GUANWANGJIUYAOZHENGMIANLEJIE,FAXIANDONGZHONGSHUDUIZHONGGUOLISHIWENHUAFAZHANQIDAODEHENDADETUIDONGZUOYONG。ZAITANEIGESHIHOU,TAJIUSHIZUIXIANJINDESIXIANGJIADAIBIAO。(ZUOZHE: ZHOUGUIDIAN,XIBEIJINGSHIFANDAXUEZHEXUEXUEYUANJIAOSHOU)

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